ANGOLA

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ANGOLA

Facts & stats about Angola...

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Medium Risk Area

#Happy Travels

Median Age

National Tree: Imbondeiro (baobab)

World's oldest parliament in Europe

Consell General est. 1419

Surface area (sq/km)

National Animal: Giant sable antelope

Also known asThe Republic of Angola
Repubilika ya Ngola
HemisphereSouthern
Capital CityLuanda
Population26 631 811 (12 June 2017)
Male: 49.5%
Female: 50.5%
Population density21.1/km2
Population age structure>15 = 43.2%
15 - 64 = 54.1%
65+ = 2.7%
Population dependency ratioindependent : dependent = 1:0.8
Life expectancy at birthFemale: 39.8
Male: 37.7
LiteracyOverall: 71.44%
Country size1 246 700 km2
Dominant languagesPortuguese
Umbundu
Kimbundu
Kikongo
Chokwe
Kwanyama
Ganguela
All native languages are considered national languages
Dominant religion(s)Roman Catholic: 55%
African indigenous: 25%
CurrencyKwanza
Leader(s)Jose Eduardo dos Santos
Important dates

  • 90 million BC: Plant-eating dinosaur Angolatitan Adamastor roamed Angolan area.

  • 1300s: Kongdo kingdom consolidates the north.

  • 1483: Arrival of the Portuguese

  • 1575: Founding of Luanda

  • 1580+: Angola becomes a major Portuguese slave-trade hotspot shipping millions of slaves to Brazil.

  • 1590: English admiral Francis Drake seizes Portuguese forts at Taag.

  • 1836: Slave trade is officially abolished by the Portuguese government.

  • 1885: Portugal formalises colonial control over Angola against local resistance.

  • 1950: Start of the nationalist movement and guerilla warfare.

  • 1951: Angola becomes an official overseas province of Portugal.

  • 1956: 

    • Start of socialist Angolan independence movement.

    • People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) is founded in northern Congo.



  • 1959: Soviet communist leader, Nikita Khrushchev visits Angola, presumably to discuss the future of Angola with the Angolan Communist Party.

  • 1961:

    • Revolts over forced labour claim 50 000 lives.

    • 3 separate guerilla movements start fighting for independence.

    • Portuguese settlers and their families are butchered throughout Angola.

    • Portuguese militias retaliate with widespread oppression and violence.

    • US and UN threaten Portugal with sanctions.



  • 1972: 

    • Barcelo de Carvalho, aka "Bongo" records the first Angolan semba music in the Netherlands.

    • Semba is the origin of Brazilian Samba music.

    • The album is smuggled to Angola but banned by the government.



  • 1975: 

    • USA launches covert operations in Angola to prevent communist takeover.

    • South Africa launches secret mission Operation Savannah in an effort to break off anti-apartheid task forces crossing from Namibia to Angola.

    • South African and Cuban forces battle in Angola following Cuban intervention in Angola.

    • Cuba assists MPLA in overcoming FNLA's last big attack.

    • The MPLA proclaims independence from Portugal.

    • Jonas Savimbi, leader of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), and Holden Roberto, leader of the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) oppose the MPLA's fight for liberation.

    • Angolan civil war for independence starts.



  • 1975 - 1888: 

    • 350 000 Angolans die in the civil war.

    • Cuba sends 50 000 troops to back the MPLA in teh civil war.

    • The USSR contributes billions of dollars to the MPLA for the civil war.

    • South Africa and USA send troops, ammunition and money to support UNITA.



  • 1976: The MPLA gainst the upper hand in the civil war.

  • 1977: Angolan rebels enter Zaire and capture the copper-rich Shaba province.

  • 1978: 

    • The South African Air Force (SAAF) under approval from John Vorster engages in air to ground combat the day after the UN Security council ends its debate on South West Africa in the Battle of Cassinga under Operation Reindeer, code name "Alpha" (stemming from Operation Bruilof)

    • SAAF drops 32 x 450 kg conventional bombs followed by strafing of two Mirage IIIs with 30 mm DEFA cannons and finally ground-assault by rifle platoons dropped in the area.



  • 1979: 

    • Death of President Agostinho Neto

    • Jose Eduardo dos Santos elected president.



  • 1980:

    • Establishment of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) by Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    • Aim of SADCC was to lessen dependence on apartheid South Africa.

    • SADCC changes to the Southern African Development Community (SADC).



  • 1984: 

    • Wife and daughter of Marius Schoon are killed by a parcel bomb sent by Craig Michael Williamson, a former South African police major and spy.

    • ANC executes 7 of its guerillas by firing squad and sentence 8 to death in Angola's Pango camp.



  • 1988:

    • Battle of Cuito Cuanavale changes political landscape.

    • Namibia's independence now in sight.

    • South Africa's apartheid regime losing power.

    • Apartheid government in South Africa agrees to Namibian elections in exchange for Cuban withdrawal from Angola.

    • Cuba and South Africa negotiate mutual withdrawal.



  • 1989:

    • Angolan government and anti-communist rebels of UNITA agree to ceasefire and ending 14-year civil war.

    • 1.5 million people had died during civil war.

    • 4 million had fled their homes.



  • 1991:

    • Civil war officially ends.

    • Last Cuban troops leave Angola.

    • President Jose Eduardo dos Santos signs peace treaty with Jonas Savimbi to end Angolan civil war.

    • The Bicess Accord fails to resolve conflict and war flares up again.



  • 1992: 

    • President Jose Eduardo dos Santos beat Jonas Savimbi in the elections.

    • Fighting resumes between UNITA and MPLA as Savimbi refuses to accept defeat.



  • 1993:

    • UN peace talks begin in Zambia.

    • Arms and oil embargo imposed on UNITA rebels.



  • 1994:

    • Faulty breaks leads to a train crash in Tolunda killing 300.

    • Angolan government and rebels agree to a peace treaty in Zambia while fighting continues.



  • 1995: 

    • UN sends 7 000 peacekeepers to cement the Angola accord.

    • A ferry boat off Sumbe sinks killing more than 42.

    • A private plane carrying the Angolan soccer team crashes in Luanda killing 48.



  • 1997: 

    • Angolan government subcontracts South African mercenary firm Executive Outcomes to assist with ending the secessionist movement.

    • 30 people are killed and 6 missionaries taken hostage by Angolan armed group at a mission.

    • National reconciliation government body is formed under Jose Eduardo dos Santos and Jonas Savimbi.

    • Zaire claims Angolan troops are supporting Kabila rebels and invaded Cabinda.

    • Angolan troops overrun northern Angola previously held by UNITA.

    • UN imposes air and travel sanctions on UNITA.

    • Angolan troops and rebels form an offensive around cities and surround Brazzaville and General Jean Marie Tiaffou urges government troops to surrender.

    • UN put new sanctions on UNITA for not adhering to Lusaka Protocol.

    • More than $4 billion in oil revenues disappear between 1997 and 2002.



  • 1998:

    • UN approves a 3-month peacekeeping extension.

    • Further sanctions imposed on UNITA-held areas.

    • 16 police officers are killed in a UNITA ambush.

    • Fighting breaks out between government troops and UNITA.

    • 2 000 Angolan troops seize a coastal naval base and oil port in Congo and move up the Congo river to battle rebels.

    • UNITA forces from Angola join Congolese forces in Congo while Namibian foces side for Kabila regime.

    • Ruling party expels UNITA deputies from parliament.

    • The Diamond Works mine at Yetwene is attacked by 50 rebels dressed as police and government killing 6 and injuring dozens.

    • UNITA rebels launch offensives on Cuito, Huambo, Cuinji and Kuito, killing hundreds.

    • A transport plane carrying UN Observer members crashes near Vila Nova. Survivors are taken hostage by rebels and despite rescue missions no survivors are found.

    • Robert Mugabe from Zimbabwe joins Namibia and Angola in war of plunder in Congo.



  • 1999:

    • Angolan rebel forces shoot down a UN plane in Huambo.

    • UNITA rebels shell Malanje, killing 25 and wounding 100.

    • UN leader Kofi Annan recommends retracting UN military observers due to their targeting.

    • Northern city of Mbanza Congo taken by UNITA rebels.

    • A chartered Antonov crashes in Luanda killing 28.

    • UN closes peacekeeping mission due to renewed civil war.

    • UNITA rebels claim to have taken control of 70% of the country.

    • A truck convoy is attacked killing 35.

    • After a polio outbreak kills 50 children and paralyse 700 the WHO plans a mass vaccination program in Angola.

    • It is reported that approximately 5 000 children are living in the streets of Luanda.

    • UNITA rebels claim to have killed 49 government soldiers.

    • Police shut down independent news radio station Radio Ecclesia.

    • Government forces with help from Namibia capture Jamba and take control of southern border.

    • 40% of Angola's budget dedicated to military expenditure.



  • 2000:

    • An Angolan military helicopter crashes killing 30.

    • 500 armed men kill 30 diamond prospecters in Chivungo.

    • UN accuses African and European governments of violating sanctions.

    • Rebels abduct 14 church workers and 20 civilians from the Swiss mission Our Lady of La Salette in Dunde.

    • Gunmen attack 2 buses at Andurie, killing dozens.



  • 2001:

    • A small plane crashes into a mountain near Lubango, killing 17.

    • Rebels attack Caxito killing 79.

    • De Beers suspends investment and prospecting in Angola.

    • A train carrying refugees and soldiers hits a mine and derails. Survivors were gunned down, killing over 252.

    • 10 000 people march in Luanda in a government-organised protest against the train ambush.

    • Gunmen attack a passenger bus near Malanje with missiles and gunfire killing 50..

    • Gunmen ambush 2 passenger buses, killing 38.

    • An electricity substation is attacked, cutting electricity to Luanda.



  • 2002:

    • Government troops claim to have killed UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi.

    • Angolan government and UNITA rebels begin cease-fire talks.

    • Government and UNITA declare official end to civil war.

    • World Bank pledges $120 million to help Angola.

    • UN lifts sanctions against UNITA movement.



  • 2003: 

    • US president Bush lifts sanctions against UNITA.

    • A Boeing 727 vanishes on a flight to either Burkina Faso, South Africa, Libya or Nigeria.

    • Isaias Samakuva elected head of UNITA.

    • Ruling party chooses President Jose Eduardo dos Santos as candidate for next election.



  • 2004:

    • Angolan troops and police drive at least 10 000 Congolese from northern Angolan diamond zones.

    • A tanker truck carrying gasoline explodes in Luanda, killing 18 and injuring 87.

    • Angola rejects genetically modified food aid.



  • 2005: 

    • The rare hemorrhagic Marburg virus breaks out killing 96 in northern Uige province.

    • Deaths from Marburg fever exceeds 300.

    • A Chinese syndicate called China Int'l Fund/China Sonangol created by Sam Pa (Xu Jingua) signs contract permitting them to export Angolan oil. the company operated from Hong Kong and eventually purchased the JPMorgan Chase building in Wall Street.



  • 2006:  Angolan General Fernando Miala alleges $2 billion in Chinese money aimed from infrastructure had disappeared. He is fired and imprisoned.

  • 2007: 

    • Luanda which had been constructed to house 500 000 now hosts 4 million.

    • An Angolan Airlines plane crashes into a house, killing 6.

    • The European commission bans all planes entering from Angola, Russia the Ukraine and Indonesia due to safety concerns.

    • The WHO suspects an outbreak of bromide poisoning in Angola following the death of 400.

    • International aid organisations state Angolan soldiers repeatedly rape Congolese refugees.



  • 2008: 

    • Angola extradites leader of the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta, Henry Okah to Nigeria.

    • A police headquarters building in Angola collapses, killing 24.

    • Jean-Cristophe Mitterand and 40 other people are charged with arms trafficking to Angola from 1993 to 2000.



  • 2009: Angola launches fresh effort to return refugees in neighbouring countries.

  • 2010: 

    • Angolan gunmen attack the Togo soccer team's bus killing three and and injuring five.

    • The UN's Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) states Angolan authorities had abducted, tortured and raped several people in a building along the Congolese border. Claims of more than 700 rapes by Angolan soldiers.



  • 2011: 

    • A mysterious case of poisoning kills two children and a further 570 further cases are reported.

    • Angolan authorities bar activists from entering the country ahead of the SADC summit.

    • An Angolan air force plane crashes in Huamba, killing 30.

    • The IMF states approxmately 25% of Angola's public funds (GDP) had disappeared from 2007 to 2010.



  • 2012: 

    • Angola holds its 2nd general election in 20 years and the ruling party retains its power.

    • In England a stowaway on a plane falls to the ground when a plane lowers its landing gear. The man had Angolan currency on him.

    • During a religious gathering on New Year's Eve 10 people die in a stampede.



  • 2013: 

    • Despite opposition from Angolan generals, Rafael Marques's book, "Blood Diamonds: Corruption and Torture in Angola" is allowed publication by Portuguese courts.

    • Cassava Brown Streak Disease breaks out in crops across East Africa.

    • Angolan security forces kill Manuel Ganga of the second-biggest opposition party CASA-CE.



  • 2014: A heavy storm hits Lobito killing 69 in floods.

  • 2015: Angolan police raid the Seventh Day Light of the World Church and arrest sect leader Jose Julinao Kalupeteka. 13 Civilians and 9 policemen are killed.

Interesting facts
  • Angola remains a hot-spot for Portuguese immigrants and tourists.

  • Until 2012 it was illegal to take Kwanza out of the country.

  • The Cabinda province of Angola is disconnected from the country and landlocked in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  • It's illegal to take pictures of government buildings in Angola.

  • Angola was the last country to get independence from Portugal.

The beauty of Angola...

The beauty of Angola...

The beauty of Angola...

The beauty of Angola...

The beauty of Angola...

The beauty of Angola...

The beauty of Angola...

The beauty of Angola...

Sources:

  1. Wikipedia (2 June 2017)
  2. Countrymeters (09 June 2017)
  3. BellAfricana Digest (13 August 2015)
  4. CIA World Factbook (30 May 2017)
  5. Traveling East (12 June 2017)
  6. Timelines.ws (9 June 2017)
  7. Weatherbase.com (9 June 2017)
  8. Brittanica (5 May 2017)

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