ALGERIA

Everything you wanted to know about Algeria...

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ALGERIA

Facts & stats about Algeria...

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Elevated Risk Area

#BeAware

Population

National Sport: football

Depicted in world's most expensive paintings

Les Femmes d'Algiers: Painted by Pablo Poicasso

Median Age

National Animal: Fennec fox

Surface area (sq/km)

National Flower: Iris tectorum

Largest producer of LPG in the world

LPG = liquefied petroleum gas
Also known asPeople's Democratic Republic of Algeria
HemisphereNorthern
Capital CityAlgiers
Population41 149 731 (8 June 2017)
Male: 50.5%
Female: 49.5%
Population density17.1/km2
Population age structure>15 = 24.2%
15 - 64 = 70.8%
65+ = 5.2%
Population dependency ratioindependent : dependent = 1:0.4
Life expectancy at birthFemale: 76.3
Male: 72.8
LiteracyOverall: 97.61%
Male: 98.36%
Female: 96.88%
Country size2 375 056/km2
Dominant languagesArabic
French
Berber/Tamazight
Dominant religion(s)Sunni Muslim: 99%
CurrencyDinar
Leader(s)President Abdel-Aziz Bouteflika (June 2017)
Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal
Important dates

  • 3000BC: Settlement of Berber people .

  • 1000BC: Colonisation of Algerian coast by Phoenicians.

  • 300BC Kingdom of Numidia established by Massininnas.

  • 148BC

    • Death of Massininnas during siege of Carthage.

    • Roman protectorate established over Numidia by Massinissa's three sons.

  • 46BC: New Roman province of Africa Nova established from Numidia by Julius Caesar.

  • 429AD: End of Roman rule following invasion of Vandals.

  • 638: Arab invasion and introduction of Islam.

  • 702: Arab occupation of Algeria.

  • 784: Rustamid dynasty established by Abd al-Wahhab.

  • 1000+: Almoravid invasion of northwest Africa.

  • 1505: Spanish occupation of Mers el Kebir.

  • 1509: Spanish occupation of Oran.

  • 1510: Spanish occupation of Tlemcen, Mostaganem and Tenes.

  • 1516: Algiers established by Aroudj Barbarossa, Greco-Turkish pirate.

  • 1518: Assasination of Aroudj Barbarossa by Spanish.

  • 1530: Unification of Algeria and Tunisia as military states under Ottoman rule by Khayr Ad-Din (Redbeard).

  • 1541: Spanish siege of Algiers.

  • 1620: Plague kills up to 50 000 Algerians

  • 1681:

    • Regency of Algiers declares war on France.

    • Barbary pirates capture French Royal Navy ship and sell crew into slavery at Algiers.

  • 1708:Turkish siege of Oran.

  • 1732:Spanish reoccupation of Oran.

  • 1790:Oran earthquake destroys town and kills 3 000.

  • 1797:French wheat order from Algiers delivered but not paid for.

  • 1801+: First Barbary War between USA and Barbary States.

  • 1815: Second Barbary War between USA, Tripoli, Tunis and Algeria ends Barbary piracy in the region.

  • 1830: French invasion of Algeria and exile of Ottoman officials.

  • 1834: Start of French colonisation and settlement.

  • 1837: Last Ottoman stronghold, Constantine, seized by French.

  • 1839: French resistance leader Abd el-Kader declares war on France.

  • 1841: Defeat of Abd el-Kader's supporting army by General Thomas Robert Bugeaud.

  • 1847:

    • French occupation of entire region.

    • French seizure of all unused land in Algeria.

  • 1867: Cholera outbreak kills more than 7 000.

  • 1868: Famine kills more than 35 000.

  • 1881: Algiers, Oran and Constantine incorporated into metropolitan France.

  • 1889: French citizenship granted to all persons of European descent born in Algeria.

  • 1902: Establishment of current Algerian borders.

  • 1913: Birth of French philosopher, novelist, dramatist and nobel prize winner Albert Camus.

  • 1924: Communist Party of Algeria established.

  • 1934:
    Constantine riots on Jewish kills 27 and injures 29.

  • 1936: Birth of fashion designer Yves St. Laurent in Oran, Algeria.

  • 1937: Underground movement Algerian People's Party (Parti du Peuple Algerina) founded in Algeria by Messali Hadj.

  • 1938:
    Establishment of Algerian Popular Movement (Union Populaire Algerienne) by Ferhat Abbas and call for equal rights for Algerian Muslims.

  • 1939: French declaration of war on Germany and mobilisation of 350 000 northern African troops.

  • 1940:French battle fleet at Oran destroyed by British claims 1 267.

  • 1942:

    • Allied forces seize French Vichy administration of Algeria and assassinate Admiral Jean Francois Darlan.

    • US General Eisenhower lands in Algiers with his troops.

    • Assassination of Genl. Eisenhower.

  • 1945: Peaceful demonstrations for independence turn violent and thousands of Muslims are killed.

  • 1946: Democratic Union of Algerian Manifesto (Union Democratique du Manifeste Algerian) formed by Ferhat Abbas calls for Algerian independence.

  • 1947: OS (Organisation Speciale) formed as paramilitary arm.

  • 1949: OS attacks central post office in Oran.

  • 1950: French arrest of several OS agents.

  • 1952: Ahmed Ben Bella escapes from prison and flees to Cairo.

  • 1954:

    • Orleansville earthquake kills 1 460.

    • Start of Algerian independence struggle starts in Aures Mountains.

  • 1956:

    • French Prime Minister Guy Mollet pelted with rotten tomatoes during demonstration in Algiers.

    • Start of Battle of Algiers.

    • France sends 250 000 reservists and 400 000 soldiers to Algiers.

    • Electric fences erected along Moroccan and Tunisian borders by French.

    • French interception of Moroccan plane and arrest of Ben Bella.

    • Millions of minefields placed along eastern and western Algerian borders by French.

  • 1962:

    • Evian Accords - formal ceasefire agreements signed and agreement for Algerian independence referendum.

    • Declaration of Algerian Independence.

    • Abderrahmane Fares elected President of Provisional Executive and Ben Bella elected Prime Minister.

  • 1965: Ben Bella elected president.

  • 1969: Friendship treaty signed between Algeria and Tunisia.

  • 1971: Nationalisation of industry, redistribution of land and national health service established by Boumediene.

  • 1976:

    • Introduction of new constitution

    • National Liberation Front (Front de Liberation Nationale) named sole political party.

    • Boumediene elected president.

    • Islam recognised as official state religion.

  • 1978:

    • Death of president Boumediene.

    • Colonel Chadi Benjedid appointed acting president.

  • 1979: Chadi Benjedid elected president.

  • 1986:
    Widespread strikes and violent demonstrations due to collapse of oil and gas prices.

  • 1987: As part of 25 years of independence celebrations political prisoners are granted parole.

  • 1988:

    • State of emergency declared following violent riots.

    • Cooperation agreement signed between Morocco and Algeria for telecommunications, post and railways.

    • Chadi Benjedid reelected as president for third term.

  • 1989: Founding of 20 new political parties, including the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS).

  • 1990: FIS wins 55% of votes in local government elections.

  • 1991:

    • FIS calls for strike after ban on political campaigning in mosques.

    • State of emergency declared.

  • 1992:

    • Dissolution of the National People's Assembly.

    • Resignation of President Chadi.

    • Five-member council chaired by Mohamed Boudiaf assumes power.

    • Assassination of Mohamed Boudiaf by bodyguard.

  • 1994: Liamine Zerousal elected president.

  • 1996:

    • Adoption of new constitution.

    • Banning of political parties based on religion, sex and language.

  • 1997: National Rally for Democracy (Reassemblement National Democratique) founded by President Liamine Zeroual and Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia.

  • 1998: Resignation of Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia.

  • 1999:
    • Resignation of President Zeroual.

    • Abdelaziz Bouteflika elected president.

  • 2001:
    • Berber protests in Kabylie turn violent. Hundreds killed.
    • Berber party withdraws from government.

  • 2002:
    • Berber language, Tamazight, recognised as national language.
    • Low voter turnout at elections due to violence and demonstrations.
    • Bomb explosion in open-air market outside Algiers kills 30 and injures 37.

  • 2003: Earthquake near Algiers kills 2 000.

  • 2005:
    • Rebel Armed Islamic Group nearly dismantled with arrest of Nourredine Boudiafi and killing of his deputy.
    • Two Algerian diplomats seized and killed by armed gunmen in Baghdad, Iraq.
    • Report finds that security forces in 1990s civil conflicts were responsible for more than 6 000 disappearances.
    • Reconciliation referendum backs amnesty for most people involved in post-1992 killings.

  • 2006:
    • First batch of Islamic militants released.
    • Banned former FIS leader, Rabah Kebir, returns from exile and urge rebels to disarm.
    • Attack on US oil company bus by Salafist Group GSPC kills several.
    • GSPC calls for attacks on French nationals.

  • 2007:
    • Salafist Group renames itself al-Qaeda Organisation in the Islamic Maghreb.
    • US department of state designates al-Qaeda a terrorist organisation.
    • Seven killed in mass simultaneous bombing in Algiers.
    • Army offensive against Islamic militants increased.
    • Bomb blasts in Algiers by al-Qaeda kills 33 and injures more than 200.
    • Dozens killed in skirmishes between military and armed groups during elections.
    • Dozens killed in bombing of UN building, including a bus filled with students.

  • 2008:
    • 60 killed in al-Qaeda bombings east of Algiers.
    • Constitutional changes see president Bouteflika run for a third term.

  • 2010: Joint command to stop terrorism established by Algeria, Mauritania, Mali and Niger.

  • 2011:
    • Death of two people due to food price protests.
    • President Bouteflika lifts 19-year state of emergency ban.
    • 18 die in suicide attack on military academy.
    • State radio and TV monopoly ends.

  • 2012: Deputy al-Qaeda leader, Boualem Bekai, killed in army ambush in Kabylie region.

  • 2013:
    • 37 foreign hostages from 8 countries and 29 militants killed during 4-day Islamic militant siege of remote gas complex.
    • Algerian celebrations for their football victory over Burkina Faso claims the lives of 12 and injures 240.
    • Algerian army kills top al-Qaeda leader over southern Algerian desert.

  • 2014:
    • Algerian military and police kill several Islamic militants in special operations throughout the year.
    • Algerian military transport plane crashes and claims 76 lives.
    • Algerian nomads start voting in presidential elections at mobile polling stations.
    • Air Algeri Flight 5017 from Burkina Faso, disappears from radar and crashes, killing 116 people.
    • Algerian group Jund al-Khilifa (Soldiers of the Caliphate) capture and behead French national Herve Pierre Gourdel.
    • The Algerian parliament outlaws violence against women.

  • 2016:
    • Tens of thousands attend the funeral of independence hero Hocine Ait-Ahmed.
    • Berber language made an official state language.
    • British-Algerian journalist, Mohamed Tamalt, dies after three month hunger strike for two year jail sentence imposed on him for offending President Bouteflika in a poem and Facebook post.

Interesting facts
  • Only 12% of Algeria is inhabited as 90% of the country is covered in Sahara desert.

  • Algiers has the highest cost of living in Northern Africa.

  • World famous singer Sting's song, Desert Rose, features algerian singer Cheb Mami.

  • UFO sightings are common in Algeria and have been reported since the 1970s.

  • It is home to a Roman ruin called Djemila.

  • French footballer Zinedine Zidane was born in Algeria to Berber parents.

The beauty of Algeria...

The beauty of Algeria...

The beauty of Algeria...

The beauty of Algeria...

The beauty of Algeria...

The beauty of Algeria...

The beauty of Algeria...

The beauty of Algeria...

Sources:

  1. Flowerhomes (14 September 2013)
  2. Weatherbase.com (8 June 2017)
  3. Countrymeters (08 June 2017)
  4. BBC (27 January 2017)
  5. CIA World Factbook (30 May 2017)
  6. Fact Monster (8 June 2017)
  7. Traveling East (7 June 2017)
  8. Facts.net (7 June 2017)

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