ALBANIA

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ALBANIA

Facts & stats about Albania...

f

Medium Risk Area

Population

National Tree: Olive

World record staple mosaic

Saimir Strati: Mother Teresa Mosaic -1.5 M staples

Median Age

National Bird: Golden eagle

Surface area (sq/km)

National Flower: Red & black poppy

Also known asthe Republic of Albania
Republika e Shqipërisë
HemisphereNorthern
Capital CityTirana
Population2 890 646 (7 June 2017)
Male: 50.1%
Female: 49.9%
Population density100.6/km2
Population age structure>15 = 21.4%
15 - 64 = 68.1%
65+ = 10.5%
Population dependency ratioindependent : dependent = 1:0.5
Life expectancy at birthFemale: 80.3
Male: 74.8
LiteracyOverall: 97.61%
Male: 98.36%
Female: 96.88%
Country size28 748/km2
Dominant languagesAlbanian (Gheg & Tosk)
Dominant religion(s)Islam: 58.79%
Christianity: 17.06%
CurrencyAlbanian Lek
Leader(s)President Bujar Nishani (June 2017)
Important dates

  • 1190: Creation of the Principality of Arbanon.

  • 1204:
    • Fourth Crusade The Venitians and Byzantines win control over certain parts of Albania.

    • Establishment of the Despotate of Epirus

  • 1258: Angevin Kingdom of Sicily seizes parts of Albania.

  • 1272: Kingdom of Albania established.

  • 1290: Start of Serbian attack.

  • 1304: Angevin recapture of Albania.

  • 1368: Durres captured from Angevins by Karl Thopia.

  • 1389: Battle of Kosovo - part of Serbian-led Balkan overcome by Ottoman empire.

  • 1430: Unsuccessful uprising against Ottoman Empire by Gjon Kastroiti.

  • 1433: Limited successful rebellion against Ottoman Empire by Gjergj Arianiti.

  • 1444: George Skanderbeg (Kastrioti) proclaimed chief of the League of Lezhe.

  • 1466: Defense of Kruje starts.

  • 1467: Defense of Kruje ends.

  • 1468: Death of Skanderbeg.

  • 1700: Mass conversion of Albanians to Islam as those who convert are offered careers in the Ottoman Empire.

  • 1822: Assasination of Ali Pashe Tepelena.

  • 1830: 500 Albanian leaders led to an ambush are trapped and killed.

  • 1877: Start of the Russo-Turkish War.

  • 1978:
    • Ottoman Empire defeated by Russian Empire

    • The League of Prizren advocating a unified Albania is formed


  • 1908: The Latin Alphabet is chosen as the standard script for Albanian.

  • 1919:
    • First Balkan war.

    • Muslim and Christian delegates declare Albania's independence at Vlore

    • Half of Albanian territory given to Serbia and Greece at an ambassadorial conference in London.


  • 1913:

    • First Balkan War ended by the Treaty of London.

    • Second Balkan War begins

    • Second Balkan War ended by the Treaty of Bucharest.

    • Albania recognised as independent state ruled by constitutional monarchy.


  • 1914:
    • William, Prince of Albania installed as head of the Principality of Albania.
    • Start of World War I
    • Collapse of the Albanian State

  • 1918:
    • End of World War I.
    • Albania divided under Italian, Serbian, Greek and French occupation.

  • 1919: Albania divided between Greece, Italy and Yogoslavia at Paris Peace Conference.

  • 1920: Albania admitted to League of Nations as sovereign, independent state.

  • 1922: Zog becomes prime minister.

  • 1924:
    • Zog steps down after financial scandal and assassination attempt.
    • Zog flees to Yugoslavia.
    • Zog returns with Yugoslavian army and is returned to power.

  • 1926: Italy and Albania sign the first Treaty of Tirana affirming Zog's political status.

  • 1928: Zog dissolves parliament and declares himself King.

  • 1931: Zog refuses renewing the First Treaty of Tirana.

  • 1934: Italy suspends economic support to Albania.

  • 1935: Italy renews economic support to Albania.

  • 1939:

    • Germans assure Mussolini of their backing for an Italian invasion of Albania.

    • Italian invasion of ALbania

    • Personal union with Italy approved at assembly

    • Shefqet Bej Verlaci becomes Prime Minister and acting Head of State

    • Albania withdraws from League of Nations

    • Italian King Victor Emmanuel II crowned King of ALbania.

    • Francesco Jocomoni di San Savino appointed civeroy of Albania.


  • 1940: Start of the Greco-Italian War.

  • 1941:

    • Invasion of Yugoslavia

    • German invasion of Greece

    • Albanian Communist Party founded.

    • Mustafa Merlika-Kruja becomes Prime Minister.



  • 1942: Founding of the National Liberation Movement.

  • 1943: German invasion of Albania.

  • 1944: Communists establish provisional government after German withdrawal.

  • 1995:

    • Kosovo returned to Yugoslavia.

    • Yugoslavia recognises government of ALbania.
    • Soviet Union recognises Albanian provisional government.



  • 1946:

    • Corfu Channel Incident - 2 British ships destroyed by Albanian mines in the Straits of Corfu.

    • Albania breaks diplomatic relations with the USA

  • 1947: UN declares Albania complicit in Communist guerilla attacks in Greek Civil War.

  • 1948:

    • Yugoslavia expelled by Cominform.
    • Yugoslavian-Albanian friendship treaty abrogated.


  • 1949: A degree on Religious Communities issued.

  • 1950: Britain and USA unsuccessfully attempt anti-communist guerrilla insurgency in Albania.

  • 1955: Albania becomes founding member of Warsaw Pact.

  • 1960: Albania sides with People's Republic of China in Sino-Soviet Split.

  • 1961: Soviet Union breaks diplomatic relations with ALbania.

  • 1966: Hoxha initiates cultural and ideological revolution.

  • 1967: Hoxha conducts violent campaign against religion.

  • 1968: Albania condemns invasion of Czechoslovakia and withdraws from Warsaw Pact.

  • 1976: Albania renamed the Socialist People's Republic of Albania.

  • 1977: Discovery of Chines conspiracy.

  • 1978: China terminates economic and military aid to Abania.

  • 1985: Death of Hoxha.

  • 1990: Government abandons monopoly on foreign commerce and opens Albania to foreign trade.

  • 1991:

    • Thousands of Albanians seek asylum in Greece and Italy

    • Multiparty elections held with Communist Party winning 67 of the votes.

    • Ramiz Alia reelected as president.

    • 1976 Constitution is invalidated.

    • Prime minister Fatos Nano resigns after trade union calls for strike.

    • Coalition government under Prime Minister Ylli Bufi established.

    • Communist Party is disbanded and reestablished as the Socialist PArty of Albania.

    • USA reopens embassy in Tirana.

    • Albania joins International Monetary Fund.

    • Coalition government collapses and Bufi resigns.

    • Vilson Ahmeti named Prime Minister.



  • 1992:

    • Albanian elections see a Democratic victory with 62% of the votes.

    • Sali Berisha succeeds Alia as the first democratic leader since Bishop Noli.

    • The first non-communist government is elected.

    • The Albanian communist party is outlawed.

    • Local elections see the newly established democratic party lose voters.

    • Democratic Party splits and a new Democratic Alliance is formed.



  • 1994:

    • Greek and Albanian relations deteriorate.

    • Five ethnic Greeks arrested and sentenced in closed court for killing two Albanian conscripts.

    • Greece expels 70 000 illegal ALbanian immigrants.

    • Draft constitution fails to obtain two-thirds vote and Berisha calls for a national referendum.

    • Referendum goes against Berisha and deadlocks government.



  • 1995:

    • Italy deploys troops along coast to keep Albanian immigrants out.

    • Albania admitted to Council of Europe.

    • Albania's debt drops from $500 million to $100 million under an agreement with 41 Western banks.



  • 1996:

    • Bomb attacks in Tirana and Durres lead to arrest of former chief of the Sigurimi.

    • Prison sentences of 9 hihg-ranking officials from communist era upheld by appeals court.

    • Chief judge of the appeals court, Prel Martini's house is bombed.



  • 1997:

    • Socialist Party regains control of country.

    • Fatos Nano elected Prime Minister.

    • Assasination of Azem Hajdari of the Democratic Party.

    • Resignation of Fatos Nano.

    • Pandeli Majko elected Prime Minister.

    • Hundreds of thousands of Albanians lose their savings in a pyramid scheme.

    • Widespread riots due to financial losses.

    • UN sends multinational military force to oversee distribution of aid.

    • National state of emergency declared.

    • Rioters take control of Sarande and seize weapons from police and army.

    • Military and security service dissolve and people arm themselves with approximately 650 000 weapons including Kalashnikovs and tanks.

    • More than 10 000 people flee the country.

    • Insurgents seize Tepelene and Gijrokaster.

    • Foreign nationals are evacuated from Albania.

    • Bashkim Fino appointed Prime Minister.

    • Currency is devalued to more than 150 leks to the US dollar.

    • More than 80 people die in a collision between an Albanian refugee ship and Italian ship.

    • A bomb attack claims 27 lives in Tirana.

    • Socialist Party wins parliamentary elections.

    • President Berisha resigns.

    • Nano named new Prime Minister of Albania.

    • Democrats leave parliament after one of their members is shot inside the chamber.



  • 1998:

    • More than 13 000 refugees flee to Albania from Kosovo following civil war.

    • Prominent Democratic leader Azem Hajdari is assassinated.

    • Democratic supporters storm and set fire to prime minister's office.

    • Ahmet Krasniqi, leader of ethnic Albanian government in Kosovo is assassinated.

    • Pandeli Majko is sworn in as Albanian prime minister.

    • Draft constitution is put forward for referendum and approved by voters.

    • Albania's constitution is ratified and 28 November declared Albanian Independence Day.



  • 1999:

    • NATO bombing of Yugoslavia sees 450 000 Yugoslavian refugees flee to Albania.

    • Widespread unrest and skirmishes.

    • Prime minister Majko resigns and is replaced by Ilir Meta.



  • 2001: Albanian government criticised of unsuccesful policy on human trafficking by International Organisation for Migration and Save the Children relating to trade in eastern European women and Albanian children.

  • 2002: Alfred Moisiu elected president.

  • 2003: US Secretary of State, Colin Powell, signs partnership agreement with Albania, Macedonia and Croatia to help them achieve NATO membership.

  • 2004: 20 people die in a shipwreck during an illegal attempt to cross the Adriatic Sea

  • 2005:Democratic Party wins parliamentary elections.

  • 2007: Bamir Topi elected president of Albania.

  • 2008: An explosion of badly-maintained arms kills 16, wounds 300 and damages Tirana airport.

  • 2010:

    • Socialist Party mounts civil disobedience campaign against government.

    • Albania refused admission to European Union.



  • 2011:

    • Central Election Commission burns ballots of 2009 parliamentary elections, prohibiting a recount of the votes.

    • Clashes break out between police and protesters in anti-government rally.

    • Socialist Party of Albania wins Local elections.

    • Former intelligence chief Ilir Kumbaro who is wanted for torture goes missing in London where he'd been living under a false identity since 1996.



  • 2013:

    • Socialist Party wins general elections.

    • Edi Rama elected prime minister.



  • 2015: Socialist government announces aim to privatise tate oil company Albpetrol.


Interesting facts
  • Mother Theresa, or Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu, was born to Albanian parents.

  • Shaking one's head in Albania is a sign of agreement while nodding denotes disagreement.

  • Albanians pay tax on traffic lights.

  • Albania has over 750 000 bunkers throughout the country.

  • The poet, Lord Byron, was a big fan of Albania, especially the women's clothing.

  • The country's flora accounts for 30% of Europe's flowers.

The beauty of Albania...

The beauty of Albania...

The beauty of Albania...

The beauty of Albania...

The beauty of Albania...

The beauty of Albania...

The beauty of Albania...

Sources:

  1. Wikipedia (29 March 2017)
  2. Countrymeters (07 June 2017)
  3. BBC (15 December 2016)
  4. CIA World Factbook (30 May 2017)
  5. Fact Monster (7 June 2017)
  6. Guinness World Records (16 May 2015)

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